See Article History Alternative Title: CSF Cerebrospinal fluid CSFclear, colourless liquid that fills and surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and provides a mechanical barrier against shock. Formed primarily in the ventricles of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid supports the brain and provides lubrication between surrounding bones and the brain and spinal cord.
Death, heart attack myocardial infarctionstroke Harm Endpoints: New-onset diabetes mellitus, muscle symptoms Narrative: Statins may prevent clotting events by reducing cholesterol and arterial plaque in blood vessels.
Nonfatal strokes occurred in 0. There is controversy about whether statins reduce all-cause mortality in low-risk persons—analyses finding a mortality benefit universally included some high-risk patients.
Although statins provide a significant reduction in mortality in high-risk groups, this benefit has not been shown in lower-risk groups.
This could be because of underpowered trials i. If so, any mortality benefit would be small and would result in a very large NNT.
The importance of the adverse effects of statins, although historically minimized, is becoming increasingly apparent. Because it is unclear if the incidence of statin-related muscle symptoms increases with time, the results cannot be extrapolated forward.
Clinicians and patients should be aware that the true incidence of statin-related muscle symptoms is likely higher than reported in the STOMP trial. It should also be noted that only one of the 42 trials included in a meta-analysis addressing statin-induced muscle problems prospectively inquired about muscle symptoms.
In summary, studies have found no significant overall mortality benefit with statin therapy in low-risk patients, as well as no reduction in the risk of serious illness overall and very small benefits for nonfatal heart attack and stroke.
Statins also appear to cause diabetes. Although this is uncommon, diabetes may occur more often than the prevention of a heart attack or stroke in patients taking statins. These individuals should be informed of the known risks and benefits of statins, and the decision to start statin therapy should be shared by the patient and physician, rather than imposed by guidelines.
We have categorized statins for low-risk patients as red, or not recommended, based on certain value judgments. Statin studies, mostly industry sponsored, used methods such as run-out phases, and the raw trial data continue to be withheld by manufacturers despite many requests by independent groups.
In addition, although statin-induced muscle symptoms are at least five times more likely than any benefit, this is typically reversible.
The decision not to categorize statins for low-risk patients as black, or harms greater than benefits, is based on value judgments about this compared with cardiovascular events. This decision becomes trickier when considering the additional burden of statin-induced diabetes.
One large, high-quality trial did not find an increase in diabetes risk.This course introduces the principles of animation through a variety of animation techniques. Topics include motion research and analysis, effective timing, .
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Skeletal Analysis. The human skeletal system is primarily composed of a supportive structure found inside the body called the endoskeleton. The endoskeleton is made up of either bone or cartilage. hemispheres are cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid that form the ventricular system.
These cavities include a pair of C-shaped lateral ventricles with anterior, inferior, and posterior “horns” protruding into the frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes, respectively.