The Columbiad was made in 8-,and inch calibers and could throw shot and shell well over 5, yards. Behind the parapets or in fort gunrooms were and pounder iron seacoast guns; pounder bronze howitzers lay in the bastions to flank the long reaches of the fort walls. There were 8-inch seacoast howitzers for heavier work.
The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to eventually abolish slavery. The Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally, thus Lincoln was constitutionally elected president.
He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency. However, before his inaugurationseven slave states with cotton -based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, a total of 49 percent. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal.
Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on " King Cotton " that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theaterthe battle was inconclusive from — Later, inLincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamationwhich made ending slavery a war goal.
InRobert E. Western successes led to Ulysses S. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T.
Sherman and his march to the sea. The last significant battles raged around the Siege of Petersburg.
While the military war was coming to an end, the political reintegration of the nation was to take another 12 years, known as the Reconstruction Era. The American Civil War was one of the earliest true industrial wars. Railroads, the telegraphsteamships and iron-clad ships, and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively.
The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks, transportation and food supplies all foreshadowed the impact of industrialization in World War IWorld War II and subsequent conflicts.
It remains the deadliest war in American history. From toit is estimated thattosoldiers died,  along with an undetermined number of civilians. Bradford wrote that the issue has been further complicated by historical revisionistswho have tried to offer a variety of reasons for the war.
The Republican Party was determined to prevent any spread of slavery, and many Southern leaders had threatened secession if the Republican candidate, Lincolnwon the election.
After Lincoln won, many Southern leaders felt that disunion was their only option, fearing that the loss of representation would hamper their ability to promote pro-slavery acts and policies. The strategy of the anti-slavery forces was containment—to stop the expansion and thus put slavery on a path to gradual extinction.
Historian Thomas Fleming points to the historical phrase "a disease in the public mind" used by critics of this idea, and proposes it contributed to the segregation in the Jim Crow era following emancipation. Slavery was illegal in much of the North, having been outlawed in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
It was also fading in the border states and in Southern cities, but it was expanding in the highly profitable cotton districts of the rural South and Southwest.
Subsequent writers on the American Civil War looked to several factors explaining the geographic divide. Slave and free states Between andthe United States achieved a vast expansion of territory through purchase, negotiation, and conquest.
At first, the new states carved out of these territories entering the union were apportioned equally between slave and free states. It was over territories west of the Mississippi that the proslavery and antislavery forces collided.
The Compromise of over California balanced a free-soil state with stronger fugitive slave laws for a political settlement after four years of strife in the s. But the states admitted following California were all free: MinnesotaOregon and Kansas In the southern states the question of the territorial expansion of slavery westward again became explosive.
Crittenden, of the Crittenden Compromise Byfour doctrines had emerged to answer the question of federal control in the territories, and they all claimed they were sanctioned by the Constitution, implicitly or explicitly.
The Crittenden Compromise of was an expression of this view. The Wilmot Proviso announced this position in In most of the early histories that appeared in the first century after the siege of Vicksburg, authors focused their criticism on Confederate Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton while lauding the performance of Union Major General Ulysses S.
Grant. A Roundtable Discussion. On April 9, , Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union forces at Appomattox, putting an end to the bloodiest war in American history. Civil War History, Volume 5, Number 4, December , pp.
(Article) Arkansas and the Vicksburg Campaign JACK B.
SCROGGS and DONALD E. REYNOLDS In the last analysis, the chief responsibility for the failure to utilize this opportunity must be The Civil War Trust's history page describing the campaign and siege to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi during the summer of during the Civil War.
Nebraska has long noted the role that immigrants in the s and s played in the development of the state, but we have neglected to note the importance emigrants played in our history, in particular, veterans of our Civil War that was fought from Eminently readable and scrupulously researched, Michael B.
Ballard's Vicksburg: The Campaign That Opened the Mississippi is not only the best account available of that pivotal event, but also one of the finest Civil War campaign studies ever written.
I thoroughly enjoyed this bookPeter Cozzens, U.S. Foreign Service Officer and author of The Civil War .