Table of Contents Overview The Enlightenment was a sprawling intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement that spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the s.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon The Frenchman Pierre-Joseph Proudhon is regarded as the first self-proclaimed anarchist, a label he adopted in his groundbreaking work What is Property? It is for this reason that some claim Proudhon as the founder of modern anarchist theory.
In What is Property? Later, Proudhon also added that "Property is Liberty" and argued that it was a bulwark against state power. While he opposed communism and favoured remuneration for labor, he also opposed capitalist wage labour i.
Proudhon supported an economic system called mutualism and urged workers "to form themselves into democratic societies, with equal conditions for all members, on pain of a relapse into feudalism".
Under capitalism, he argued, employees are "subordinated, exploited" and their "permanent condition is one of obedience", a "slave". Proudhon's ideas were influential within French working class movements and his followers were active in the Revolution of in France as well as the Paris Commune of Anarcho-communists such as Peter Kropotkin later disagreed with Proudhon for his support of "private property" in the products of labor i.
Published in 27 issues from 9 June to 4 FebruaryLe Libertaire was the first anarcho-communist journal published in the United States. This was the first anarchist journal to use the term "libertarian".
An influential form of individualist anarchism called egoism,  or egoist anarchismwas expounded by one of the earliest and best-known proponents of individualist anarchism, the German Max Stirner. InMikhail Bakunin led a failed uprising in Lyon on the principles later exemplified by the Paris Communecalling for a general uprising in response to the collapse of the French government during the Franco-Prussian Warseeking to transform an imperialist conflict into social revolution.
In his Letters to A Frenchman on the Present Crisis, he argued for a revolutionary alliance between the working class and the peasantry and set forth his formulation of what was later to become known as propaganda of the deed.
Anarchist historian George Woodcock reports: Thus only a tiny minority of anarchists was present, and the General Council's resolutions passed almost unanimously.
Most of them were clearly directed against Bakunin and his followers". In response, the federalist sections formed their own International at the St.
Imier Congressadopting a revolutionary anarchist program. Anarchists participated actively in the establishment of the Paris Commune. As for the reforms initiated by the Commune, such as the re-opening of workplaces as co-operatives, anarchists can see their ideas of associated labour beginning to be realised.
Moreover, the Commune's ideas on federation obviously reflected the influence of Proudhon on French radical ideas.
The Commune's vision of a communal France based on a federation of delegates bound by imperative mandates issued by their electors and subject to recall at any moment echoes Bakunin's and Proudhon's ideas Proudhon, like Bakunin, had argued in favour of the "implementation of the binding mandate" in and for federation of communesthus both economically and politically the Paris Commune was heavily influenced by anarchist ideas.
Initially, she worked as an ambulance woman, treating those injured on the barricades. During the Siege of Parisshe untiringly preached resistance to the Prussians. On the establishment of the Commune, she joined the National Guard.
She offered to shoot Thiers and suggested the destruction of Paris by way of vengeance for its surrender. In DecemberMichel was brought before the 6th council of war, charged with offences including trying to overthrow the government, encouraging citizens to arm themselves and herself using weapons and wearing a military uniform.
Defiantly, she vowed to never renounce the Commune and dared the judges to sentence her to death. If you let me live, I shall never cease to cry for vengeance".
Following the Paris Commune, the anarchist movement as the whole of the workers' movement was decapitated and deeply affected for years. Individualist anarchism in the United States, free love and freethought[ edit ] Main articles: Individualist anarchism in the United StatesAnarchism and issues related to love and sexand Freethought Josiah Warren is widely regarded as the first American anarchist  and the four-page weekly paper he edited duringThe Peaceful Revolutionist, was the first anarchist periodical published.
Greene presented this Proudhonian Mutualism in its purest and most systematic form". Thoreau was an American author, poet, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, philosopher and leading transcendentalist.
He is best known for his books Waldena reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings; and his essay, Civil Disobediencean argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state.
Later, Benjamin Tucker fused Stirner's egoism with the economics of Warren and Proudhon in his eclectic influential publication Liberty. Henry David ThoreauAmerican individualist anarchist and transcendentalist writer pioneer of anarcho-pacifism and green anarchism An important concern for American individualist anarchism was free love.
Free love particularly stressed women's rights since most sexual laws discriminated against women, for example marriage laws and anti-birth control measures.As man seeks justice in equality, so society seeks order in anarchy. Anarchy—the absence of a sovereign—such is the form of government to which we are every day approximating.
The essential elements of Proudhon’s philosophy already had been developed by earlier thinkers. The rejection of political authority has a rich pedigree.
(Czolgosz identified himself as an anarchist, but he had no ties to any movement.) In , Berkman and Goldman were deported to the Soviet Union for interfering with the World War I draft.
The counter-movement was a backlash against the etherealness established by the late sixties’ Summer of Love ethos – all waves, flares, drapes, peace and love.
Westwood and McLaren’s ‘anarchy shirt’ is an apt example. At the heart of the British punk movement were the Sex Pistols and in the scene exploded when ‘Anarchy in the UK’ was released. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements By George Woodcock World Publishing, Read preview Overview Anarchism, Internationalism and Nationalism in Europe, By Levy, Carl The Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol.
50, No. 3, September Anarchy is a state of disorder due to absence or nonrecognition of authority. Anarchic means uncontrolled by convention, NO controlling rules or principles to give order.
Anarchism is the abolition of all government and organization of society on a voluntary, cooperative basis without recourse to force or compulsion.