This is the result of testing a part or module obtained from rework or service of a product. COB see Chip-on-Board Cognitive Modeling Cognitive Modeling produces a computational model for how people perform tasks and solve problems, based on psychological principles. These models may be outlines of tasks written on paper or computer programs which enable us to predict the time it takes for people to perform tasks, the kinds of errors they make, the decisions they make, or what buttons and menu items they choose. Cognitive Walkthroughs Cognitive walkthroughs involve the development of task scenarios from a product specification.
Value-Added Steps These represent opportunity for waste elimination. Proceed with the goal to eliminate waste before settling for waste reduction. Throughout the entire process Business reengineering process vs continuous process, look for the 7-Wastes.
So, before process mapping, educate the team on how to "see" waste. Take caution when considering "automation" to take over manual processes. People are adaptable and much more flexible. Automation is fixed, constant, and often difficult to fix and maintain. In a JIT environment the decision to automate is advised with caution.
Elements of a Process Map The following list of are key elements of a process map. The current state map may lack some of these elements.
More importantly, is to consider these elements in the creation of the future state map. It is meant to be reviewed and updated on a continuous basis.
The more detail it contains, the better understanding you and the team will have of the true process and opportunities. It's considered a living document.
A Process Map should have an overall Owner. Metrics defined to show the future state improvement. Ability to stand the test of time new hires, people changing roles, etc.
Ability to be achievable and realistic. Clear connection points and hand-offs. Accommodate some of the what-if, or unique scenarios. Not all processes will follow a particular path all the time. Try to map the most common alternative paths and improve those too.
The development of the map is a team effort and it will educate everyone on the reality of the process and most often how little of the total process is value added.
Typically, there are obvious improvements that will be become evident while the mapping is being done. It will not be perfect the first time through, add more detail as it evolves. The team needs to begin identifying the value added steps versus the non-value added steps and time. Creating a future state or ideal state while being realistic yet not too limited will make it clear to the team that everything getting in the way is opportunity to improve.
Laws, regulations, customer standards, past paradigms all need to be challenged because they change over time. Creating a process map on a computer is common and many software programs exist that have symbols created. However, the first drafts are often very complex and frequently revised.
Create the real flow on paper and post it publicly for others to offer input and critique. It is very important to catch the rework loops, communication issues, decision delays, stops, starts, pick-ups, drop-offs, and other waste so the team fully understands the opportunities.
These hidden factory "what-if" and "sometimes" paths are important for everyone to document and understand. This knowledge will create better subjective decisions when assigning weights to the inputs using the subjective root cause analysis tools in the Measure phase.
Rework Loops Rework loops are where defects and wasted time are occurring. The team should focus on preventing them, reducing their severity, and detecting them if they can not be eliminated. Some product or process may actually go through the rework path multiple times and the map does not illustrate this unless specially noted and discussed.
The picture below shows two Rework Loops. Rework loops have varying severity. The process map does not show the amount or cost of pieces scrapped or the amount or cost of pieces reworked.
Use the yield calculations to get this data.ABSTRACT. This paper presents an organizational analysis methodology aimed at knowledge capitalization with a view to improving business processes.
Just a simple presentation to get the picture on what is business process reengineering and how does it differs with continuous improvement. Six Sigma DMAIC Process - Define Phase - Capturing Voice of Customer (VOC) What is Voice of Customer?
Voice of Customer is the customer’s voice, expectations, preferences, comments, of a product or service in discussion. The Master Index of all aspects of Business Process Redesign (BPR) and Process Innovation to serve the organizations's process design and client server needs.
Also includes an overview of key BPR concepts covering questions regarding BPR, Processes, Myths about BPR, Relation between BPR and information technology, Role of IS function in BPR, BPR Methodology, Failure of BPR Projects, and .
Differences between Continuous Improvement and Process Reengineering. Article shared by: ADVERTISEMENTS: The differences between continuous process improvement (CPI) and Process Reengineering (PR) can be examined with respect to the following parameters.
Continuous Process Improvement versus Business Process . With Robotic Process Automation, you can easily automate such repetitive tasks in a given business process. Referring to the example of Invoice Processing, RPA can read emails, download and read PDF’s, maintain data in Excel sheets, update backend ERP systems, while approvals and quality checks remain manual as they need specialized skills, judgement and knowledge.