This essay will critically discuss the extent to which the introduction of reasonable adjustments has been successful in the UK, and whether or not the duty to make reasonable adjustments has eliminated discrimination and inequality of opportunity faced by disabled individuals.
The written ministerial statement made on 18 June is quite clear that when considering applications for wind energy development, local planning authorities should subject to the transitional arrangement only grant planning permission if: Whether the proposal has the backing of the affected local community is a planning judgement for the local planning authority.
The assessment and rating of noise from wind farms should be used by local planning authorities when assessing and rating noise from wind energy developments.
Good practice guidance on noise assessments of wind farms has been prepared by the Institute of Acoustics. Safety may be an issue in certain circumstances, but risks can often be mitigated through appropriate siting and consultation with affected bodies: This is often less than the minimum desirable distance between wind turbines and occupied buildings calculated on the basis of expected noise levels and due to visual impact.
Air traffic and safety Wind turbines may have an adverse affect on air traffic movement and safety.
Firstly, they may represent a risk of collision with low flying aircraft, and secondly, they may interfere with the proper operation of radar by limiting the capacity to handle air traffic, and aircraft instrument landing systems.
There is a 15 kilometre km consultation zone and 30km or 32km advisory zone around every civilian air traffic radar, although objections can be raised to developments that lie beyond the 32km advisory zone.
There is a c. See the Town and Country Planning safeguarded aerodromes, technical sites and military explosives storage areas direction Defence Wind turbines can adversely affect a number of Ministry Of Defence operations including radars, seismological recording equipment, communications facilities, naval operations and low flying.
Radar In addition to air traffic radar, wind turbines may affect other radar installations such as weather radar operated by the Meteorological Office. Wind turbines can potentially affect electromagnetic Critically discuss the extent to which eg radio, television and phone signals.
Specialist organisations responsible for the operation of electromagnetic links typically require m clearance either side of a line of sight link from the swept area of turbine blades. Ofcom acts as a central point of contact for identifying specific consultees relevant to a site.
Other risks including disturbance and displacement of birds and bats and the drop in air pressure close to the blades which can cause barotrauma lung expansion in bats, which can be fatal.
Whilst these are generally a relatively low risk, in some situations, such as in close proximity to important habitats used by birds or bats, the risk is greater and the impacts on birds and bats should therefore be assessed.
As the significance of a heritage asset derives not only from its physical presence, but also from its setting, careful consideration should be given to the impact of wind turbines on such assets.
Depending on their scale, design and prominence a wind turbine within the setting of a heritage asset may cause substantial harm to the significance of the asset. Under certain combinations of geographical position and time of day, the sun may pass behind the rotors of a wind turbine and cast a shadow over neighbouring properties.
Only properties within degrees either side of north, relative to the turbines can be affected at these latitudes in the UK — turbines do not cast long shadows on their southern side. Modern wind turbines can be controlled so as to avoid shadow flicker when it has the potential to occur.
Individual turbines can be controlled to avoid shadow flicker at a specific property or group of properties on sunny days, for specific times of the day and on specific days of the year.
Where the possibility of shadow flicker exists, mitigation can be secured through the use of conditions. Although problems caused by shadow flicker are rare, where proposals for wind turbines could give rise to shadow flicker, applicants should provide an analysis which quantifies the impact.
Turbines can also cause flashes of reflected light, which can be visible for some distance. It is possible to ameliorate the flashing but it is not possible to eliminate it.
As with any form of energy generation this can vary and for a number of reasons. With wind turbines the mean wind speed at hub height along with the statistical distribution of predicted wind speeds about this mean and the wind turbines used will determine the energy captured at a site.
This though will vary with location and even by turbine in an individual wind farm. This can be useful information in considering the energy contribution to be made by a proposal, particularly when a decision is finely balanced.
Cumulative landscape impacts and cumulative visual impacts are best considered separately.
The cumulative landscape impacts are the effects of a proposed development on the fabric, character and quality of the landscape; it is concerned with the degree to which a proposed renewable energy development will become a significant or defining characteristic of the landscape.
Cumulative visual impacts concern the degree to which proposed renewable energy development will become a feature in particular views or sequences of viewsand the impact this has upon the people experiencing those views. Cumulative visual impacts may arise where two or more of the same type of renewable energy development will be visible from the same point, or will be visible shortly after each other along the same journey.
Hence, it should not be assumed that, just because no other sites will be visible from the proposed development site, the proposal will not create any cumulative impacts. In identifying impacts on landscape, considerations include: When assessing the significance of impacts a number of criteria should be considered including the sensitivity of the landscape and visual resource and the magnitude or size of the predicted change.
Some landscapes may be more sensitive to certain types of change than others and it should not be assumed that a landscape character area deemed sensitive to one type of change cannot accommodate another type of change.STOCKHOLM, Sweden (AFP) — A massive iceberg drifting off Greenland has triggered fears of flooding if it breaks up, leading the authorities to evacuate a high-risk zone.
29 rows · Essay terms explained Study guide For a printer Critically evaluate: Give your verdict as . View Critically discuss to what extent Porter from STRATEGY MGT at Middlesex UK.
Critically discuss to what extent Porters Diamond Model is/isnt a useful concept in explaining home and host. What are the meaning of these terms like discuss, explain, comment, examine, critically examine, evaluate, and critically evaluate when writing an answer in the CSE Mains exam?
Critically comment is also forming opinion on main points but in the end you must provide a fair judgement. Weigh up to what extent something is true.
Persuade. The French Embassy in Russia announced earlier on Monday it had been notified by Russian authorities that Business France was not allowed to carry out its activities in the country anymore.
Guidance to help local councils in developing policies for renewable and low carbon energy and identifies the planning considerations.