Low Impact Development LID is an innovative stormwater management approach with a basic principle that is modeled after nature: Techniques are based on the premise that stormwater management should not be seen as stormwater disposal. Almost all components of the urban environment have the potential to serve as an IMP.
Definition of Low Impact Development LID Low Impact Development LID is a sustainable storm water management strategy that is gaining rapid acceptance in the United States to meet regulatory compliance and resource protection goals and is practiced extensively in Europe.
The increased use of LID is in response to burgeoning infrastructural costs of new development and redevelopment projects, more rigorous environmental regulations, concerns about the urban heat island effect, and the impacts of natural resources due to growth and development.
The frequency of droughts and concern about water quality issues have also prompted interest in the treatment and the reuse of storm water as a viable resource and has resulted in a shift in the way planners, developers, architects, engineers, and the public approach the control of storm water and conservation of rainwater.
Many municipalities across the nation have embraced LID due to its holistic approach to site design and overall sustainable design. There are countless examples of jurisdictions that have proactively revised their development policies, codes, growth and management plans and implemented LID technologies to manage storm water at its source and collect rainwater for secondary use.
It is a decentralized system that distributes storm water across a project site in order to replenish groundwater supplies rather than sending it into a system of storm drain pipes and channelized networks that control water downstream in a large storm water management facility.
The LID approach promotes the use of various devices that filter water and infiltrate water into the ground.
It promotes the use of roofs of buildings, parking lots, and other horizontal surfaces to convey water to either distribute it into the ground or collect it for reuse.
The LID approach differs from conventional conveyance systems as it promotes the highest and best use of the intrinsic land form and built structure s to both distribute storm water and collect rainwater. The uniqueness of LID is the interaction and function of water on a site.
It capitalizes on the integration of infrastructure, architecture, and landscape in order to create a balanced, hydrologically functional and sustainable site. The LID approach handles water like the valuable and viable resource that it is, for the water that reaches a project site is a valuable commodity and can be used in innumerable ways.
LID encompasses the use of structural devices engineered systems and non-structural devices vegetated, natural systems. It uses a combination of these technologies, or a "suite of technologies," to maintain or restore the natural hydrologic functions on a site with the goal of reducing the impact of development.
The goal is to structure the development of a site so that the pre-development conditions are not altered excessively. Of particular concern are the rate of storm water runoff, the pollutants in the water, and recharge of water into the ground. By reducing water pollution and increasing groundwater recharge, LID helps to improve the quality of receiving surface waters and to stabilize the flow rates of nearby streams.
The integrated LID devices that are available allow the designer to restructure the built environment to control storm water and capture rainwater in order to minimize the impact of development. The integration of LID devices permits the developer and designer to use an array of storm water management devices that are both cost-effective and environmentally sound.
The LID strategy is not a static design approach, however, is very dynamic and adaptable. LID has been proven to reduce development and infrastructure costs, minimize operations and maintenance costs, and improve the marketability of projects. Inthe County produced the first municipal LID manual.
This was later expanded into a nationally distributed LID manual that was published in Since then the LID Center, other water research organizations, and universities have been developing tools, strategies, and techniques to incorporate LID into research and regulatory programs.
To prevent degradation of water quality and natural resources, To manage storm water more efficiently and cost effectively, To protect groundwater and drinking water supplies, and To help communities grow more attractively.
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Models of Ingenuity There still are many barriers to using LID technologies, primarily because of unfamiliarity with the technologies, and obstacles in the administrative and permitting process. However, many models already exist that illustrate the ingenuity of municipalities across the country to incorporate sustainable practices into their development codes and policies to protect their natural resources and manage storm water.
Many communities have streamlined processes and revised their regulations and development codes to promote LID storm water management applications. One popular practice among planning departments is extending provisional variances or waivers of standards to developers, engineers, and architects for projects that demonstrate the use of LID technologies.
Many areas of the country that are progressive with respect to alternative storm water management applications are beginning to adapt their local codes and zoning laws as a result of successful pilot programs. Demonstration projects have repeatedly stimulated interest in LID practices and have prompted the passage of ordinances, revisions to development policies and codes, amendments to storm water management guidelines, and often influenced modifications to growth and management goals or Comprehensive Land Use Management Plans.
Municipalities have used the pilot projects to: Demonstrate sustainable materials and products, Monitor storm water runoff, Measure the impact to adjacent waterways, Determine cost benefits, Streamline permitting and administrative approval processes, and Evaluate public involvement and acceptance.
The Challenge of LID LID is in the early stages of adoption in the United States and a challenge exists to assist municipalities in adapting these approaches and techniques. Although the technologies are relatively new to planners in this country and innovative in their response, they have been successfully used in Europe and Asia for many years.
The technologies are not experimental; rather they are proven and tested. The challenge is to implement these technologies in inventive configurations.
However, the pursuit of innovative technologies is not a foreign concept to developers, engineers, and architects that advocate and promote green building and sustainable design.Currently, billion people (40% of the world’s population) live within km of the coast, ref adding increased pressure to coastal ecosystems.
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Please refresh your browser if your internet. The concept of sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Learn more about the topic of sustainable development from IISD's experts and the work being done. A. Low Impact Development: An Alternative Site Design Strategy. Low Impact Development (LID) is an alternative site design strategy that uses natural and engineered infiltration and storage techniques to control storm water where it is generated.
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