The act replaced the Indian General Allotment Act ofknown as the "Dawes Act," which broke up tribal lands and allotted them to individual members of tribes; traditionally the tribes held the land on reservations in a communal capacity. The Dawes Act also opened up surplus lands to non—American Indians. As a result of the Dawes Act, Native American lands totaling million acres in had fallen to 48 million acres by These losses virtually destroyed traditional tribal government on the reservations.
Indian policy away from forced acculturation and assimilation. In the government-sponsored Meriam Report had documented problems of poverty, ill health, and despair on many reservations and recommended reforms in Bureau of Indian Affairs administration, including ending allotment and the phasing out of boarding schools.
In the new administration of Franklin D. Disillusioned with the materialistic and individualistic nature of industrial societyCollier proposed an Indian New Deal that would help preserve Native cultures and provide tribes with greater powers of self-government.
The IRA was the center of Collier's reform agenda. The act repudiated the Dawes General Allotment Act, barred further allotment, and set aside funds to consolidate and restore tribal landholdings.
The IRA also provided for job training and vocational education and stipulated that Indians could gain employment in the BIA without recourse to civil service regulations. Finally, the act also allowed tribes to establish business councils with limited powers of home rule to enable them to develop reservation resources.
A provision in Collier's original proposal to establish a special court of Indian affairs was rejected by Congress. Tribes were given the option of accepting or rejecting the IRA by referendum.
Despite Collier's rhetoric of self-determination, tribes felt pressured to accept the IRA just as they had felt pressed to accept previous government policies.
Boiler-plate BIA home rule charters showed little sensitivity to the diversity of Native life, and attempted to impose a one-size-fits-all solution to Indian problems.
IRA referendums and majority rule tribal councils also ignored the consensus-driven traditions that persisted in many communities. The IRA attracted opposition from advocates of both assimilation and traditionalism, both inside and outside Indian communities.
Despite its flaws and limitations, the IRA did represent a new recognition of Indian rights and culture. Although many of Collier's policies were altered in subsequent decades, both as a result of government-sponsored programs to terminate federal services to Indians and as a result of indigenous demands for greater sovereignty, the IRA and IRA-created governments remain influential in shaping U.
University of Arizona Press, The Assault on Assimilation: University of New Mexico Press, The Administration of the Indian Reorganization Act, — University of Nebraska Press, In spite of strenuous objections by Christian missionary groups, Congress passed the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act) in The IRA has three objectives: (1) economic development of the tribes, (2) organization of tribal governments, and (3) Indian civil and cultural rights.
The Indian Reorganization Act of reversed some of the provisions of the Dawes Act of by allowing the Native Americans to return to tribal government and by allowing the Native Americans. Indian Reorganization Act () The ‘Meriam Report’ published in was a government study which described the poverty and poor living conditions on the reservations, terrible disease and death rates, grossly inadequate care of the Indian children in the boarding schools, and destructive effects of the erosion of Indian land caused by.
Indian Reorganization act of Lawrence Schlam W hen Congress adopted the Indian Reorganization Act of (P.L.
), in many respects it intended to allow Native Americans to resurrect their culture and traditions lost to government expansion and encroachment years earlier.
the indian reorganization act, the declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples, and a proposed carcieri "fix": updating the trust land acquisition process.
at (reviewing tax-exemption provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act to find that state income taxation of an off-reservation tribal ski-resort was allowable, but that state "compensating use taxation" of the tribal ski-resort was proscribed by the federal statute); In re City of Nome, P.