I used the bubble technique in a lab I did with my students and wrote a post about the experience here on Clear Biology.
Such information is essential for a comprehensive understanding of the factors that bring about certain diseases of the nervous system and for developing ways of improving recovery after trauma.
We have done most experiments on vertebrate neuromuscular junctions, particularly those of frog, because they are the best understood of all synapses, but we have also studied neuron-to-neuron synapses in the brains of both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Over the years our experimental approaches have included in vivo microsurgery, tissue culture, light and electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, protein purification, molecular genetics, in situ hydridization, and electrophysiology.
We are currently using the nascent technology of high-resolution electron microscope tomography to study at nm spatial resolution the organization and behavior of macromolecules at synapses.
The information that is obtained provides unique insights about the molecular mechanisms involved in synaptic impulse transmission and in synapse formation. We are also developing software, called EM3Da unified application designed specifically for structural cell biologists that allows a user to proceed from an electron microscope tomography data set of a specimen to a collection of 3D surface models of structures within the specimen.
EM3D also includes computational tools that quantify spatial characteristics on a vertex-by-vertex basis upon the surface models. These technologies can be used to examine how macromolecular organization regulates cell function in any tissue.
In addition to being equipped with the standard apparatus used for cellular and molecular neurobiological experiments, the lab operates the Stanford High Resolution Electron Microscope Facility for Biomedical Scienceswhich features an FEI Polara electron microscope for tomography and single particle analysis.
Judith S. Nu ño AP Biology 12/1/ Title: Chi Square Analysis and M&M’s Purpose: to practice using chi square analysis to compare the observed and expected color ratios of M&M’s candies. M&M Lab Report AP Biology Abstract In this lab, the amounts of M&Ms of each color in packages of plain M&Ms are observed. The chi square value is calculated and compared to the critical value in order to either accept or reject the null hypothesis and test for accuracy. In this lab, the objective was to master Chi-Square tests to test the significance of our genetic probabilities. We tested to see if the distribution of M&Ms in the bag we got was the same percentage as that advertised, where our hypotheses were.
Showing that the position of individual axon terminals at synapses in autonomic ganglia and of neuromuscular junctions can be observed in living isolated preparations by Nomarski DIC optics.
Although DIC optics had been used in a previous publication by others to examine the trafficking of large organelles, this was its first application to the study of cellular topography, in general, and synapses, in particular, in live preparations, and it led to the widespread use of DIC optics for these purposes today.
Visual Identification of synaptic boutons on living ganglion cells and of varicosities in post-ganglionic axons in the heart of the frog. Visual identification of nerve terminals in living isolated skeletal muscle. Distribution of acetylcholine receptors in the vicinity of nerve terminals on skeletal muscle of the frog.
Cholinesterase is associated with the basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction. It had been shown around the turn of the twentieth century that regenerating axon terminals reinnervate the general area of a muscle fiber that was the home of the original axon terminals, the endplate region.
Knowledge about the precision of reinnervation of the narrow postsynaptic membrane within the endplate region was an essential step toward learning that the synaptic basal lamina contains synaptogenic proteins, which ultimately led to the discovery of agrin as described below.
Precision of reinnervation of original postsynaptic sites in frog muscle after a nerve crush. Altered patterns of innervation in frog muscle after denervation.
Reinnervation of original synaptic sites on muscle fiber basement membrane after disruption of the muscle cells.
Reinnervation of muscle fiber basal lamina after removal of myofibers: Differentiation of regenerating axons at original synaptic sites. Acetylcholine receptors in regenerating muscle accumulate at original synaptic sites in the absence of the nerve.
The influence of basal lamina on the accumulation of acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites in regenerating muscles.Introduction to the study of biology at Texas A&M University; gain knowledge of departmental and campus resources to assist and enhance the pursuit of a degree in biology, microbiology, molecular and cellular biology or zoology.
BIOL Cell Biology Laboratory. Credits 2.
1 Lecture Hour. 3 Lab .
The George Whitesides Research Group in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
High Impact Innovation and Imagination. Judith S. Nu ño AP Biology 12/1/ Title: Chi Square Analysis and M&M’s Purpose: to practice using chi square analysis to compare the observed and expected color ratios of M&M’s candies. Learning that the muscle fiber’s surface directly opposite the axon terminal at neuromuscular junctions (the postsynaptic membrane) has a far greater sensitivity to the direct iontophoretic application of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine than it does a few micrometers away.
AP Biology. Chi Square Analysis. M & M Statistics. Introduction. Consider a trait that exhibits the pattern of simple dominance.
If we were to cross two heterozygous individuals (i.e., Aa x Aa), then we would expect a ratio of dominant to recessive phenotypes in the offspring. Egg & Ego: An Almost True Story of Life in the Biology Lab [J.M.W. Slack] on attheheels.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A light-hearted look at the nature of academic science, intended for anyone interested in biology but particularly for biology students who want to find out what the future holds in store.
The Egg of the title refers to the science of developmental biology.