Nuts, bolts, screws, nails, etc.
Determinants for successful owner-driven reconstruction The previous sections of this paper discussed the multiple advantages of ODR over other reconstruction approaches.
But it is equally important to underline that ODR is no panacea for successful reconstruction.
Whether or not ODR leads to positive outcomes depends on several contextual factors, on agencies implementation capacity, and on the enabling mechanisms set in place to support people in the process of rebuilding their houses.
A pre-requisite for successful ODR is an effective and participatory land use and physical planning; for people to be able to participate in planning their settlements and to take a lead in the reconstruction of their houses they must be able to live in or near their village or neighbourhood.
To this aim, they may require support for the removal of rubble and for building temporary shelters Thiruppugazh, This means that a well-managed owner-driven reconstruction approach is only one of several factors that determine the positive outcome of reconstructions.
In Port-au-Prince, Haiti, for example, the huge volume of rubble is one of the main factors impeding people to return to their neighbourhoods and consequently in their participation in planning the reconstruction of their settlements.
In Sri Lanka, for instance, although there is a consensus that the ODR approach led to higher levels of satisfaction, the enabling mechanisms set in place by the government were not sufficient.
Whereas the Government of Gujarat took measures to prevent inflation and to ensure access to good quality building materials, this was not done in Sri Lanka.
As a consequence, in less than two years the material and labour costs almost doubled. In some places, NGOs intervened to top up the financial assistance provided by the government with an additional grant that allowed people to complete their houses.
In many places, however, this was not the case, and as a result, the number of incomplete houses was very high in some areas Aysan et al.
Without good standards and oversights the quality of construction may be poor and pre-disaster vulnerabilities are likely to be reproduced. If building codes are too rigid and biased towards alien housing technologies, people can have trouble complying with requirements even with oversight.
These requirements were taken very seriously by the government of Gujarat, which appointed 1, engineers for providing technical guidance to people in rebuilding their houses. ODR may also be more difficult to implement in case resettlement is unavoidable or with poor communities with no building experience, such as urban squatters or very poor rural households who could never afford anything close to a hazard resilient house before the disaster.
Likewise, elderly people and other vulnerable groups may face difficulties in managing reconstruction alone to reach milestones required to receive subsequent disbursements.The plays in assisting the community during a disaster.
Role of the Major Public Health Personnel Each of the major public health personnel, including the public health nurse, play a key role in keeping a disaster organized flowing smoothly. The key roles are the medical health.
This paper examines the impact of the Chile earthquake and tsunami on community resilience, and the crucial role that communities had to play in coping with this event. The Role of Faith Communities in Disaster Posted on February 18, by recoverydiva New Tip Sheet from the National Disaster Interfaiths Network: The Role of Faith Communities in Disaster.
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The paper also sheds light on role of social work to enhance community participation to make disaster management a success. role to highlight the roles played by various agencies during the different stages of disasters occurred in India and also examine especially the role of government.
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