Sampling Methods for Quantitative Research Sampling Methods Sampling and types of sampling methods commonly used in quantitative research are discussed in the following module. Explain probability and non-probability sampling and describes the different types of each. Researchers commonly examine traits or characteristics parameters of populations in their studies. A population is a group of individual units with some commonality.
Conducting Educational Research Step 6: Select Sampling Technique It is virtually impossible to study every individual in the target population. In most cases, the target population, such as students in JS1, is simply too large for the researcher to plan a quality research study.
Collecting millions of questionnaires from every JS1 student would present the following challenges: Millions of naira would be spent just to print the questionnaires, let alone transportation costs to distribute the questionnaires to all JS1 students. Researchers would have difficulties finding all JS1 students, particularly in village areas.
Unqualified research assistants would have to be enlisted to assist in data collection, reducing the quality of data received. Years would be spent distributing and collecting the questionnaires, let alone coding the questionnaire responses.
Since it will take so long to collect data from the entire population, the data from the first group of students sampled will likely be outdated by the time the last group of students is sampled. Does this therefore mean that the target population has to be restricted to such a small group - such as all JS1 students in Baptist Academy - so that the researcher can access the entire population?
Research methodologists have developed sampling procedures that should identify a sample that is representative of the population, meaning that the sample closely resembles the target population on all relevant characteristics.
Theory of Sampling The theory of sampling is as follows: Researchers want to gather information about a whole group of people the population. Researchers can only observe a part of the population the sample. The findings from the sample are generalized, or extended, back to the population.
Therefore, the key question in sampling is How representative is the sample of the target population? This question is the foundation of population validity, the degree to which the results of a study can be generalized from the sample to the target population.
The analogy of a fruit market can be used when thinking about the population, the sample, and the sampling technique.
The first step in sampling is to identify the unit of analysis. This was described in Chapter 11, Identify the Population. Let's say that you are conducting research related to a fruit market.
What will be studied in the fruit market? Is it a type of fruit or the fruit sellers themselves? Let's say you identify citrus fruit as the unit of analysis, and your population is all citrus fruit within the Bauchi Road fruit market. There are too many pieces of citrus fruit for you to study in that market, so you must select only a sample of the citrus fruit.
A common error in sampling is that the sample and population are not identical.In fact, the sampling procedure largely depends on who are your respondents.
If it is the general public you may go for random sampling if the the area you are covering is not that large otherwise. Research methodologists have developed sampling procedures that should identify a sample that is representative of the population, meaning that the sample closely resembles the target population on all relevant characteristics.
Running head: RESEARCH METHODS PAPER 1 Sample Paper for Research Methods Daren H.
Kaiser Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne. Running head: RESEARCH METHODS PAPER 2 In the procedure section you must summarize each step in the execution of the study. The sample will be representative of the population if the researcher uses a random selection procedure to choose participants.
Quantitative Research Design: Sampling and Measurement - The link below defines sampling and discusses types of probability and nonprobability sampling. Chapter 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES Introduction The goal of quantitative experimental research is to gather evidence that allows a The steps described above produced a representative sampling of the population that was presumed to be free of bias.
It was presumed that reasonable generalizations. This paper should be used only as an example of a research paper write-up.
Horizontal rules signify the top and bottom edges of pages. For sample references which are not included with this paper, you should consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 4th Edition.. This paper is provided only to give you an idea of what a research paper might look like.