The painting portrays servants, musicians, monks, children, guests, and hosts all in a single social environment. It serves as an in-depth look into the Chinese social structure of the time. The term "society" came from the Latin word societaswhich in turn was derived from the noun socius " comradefriend, ally"; adjectival form socialis used to describe a bond or interaction between parties that are friendly, or at least civil. Without an article, the term can refer to the entirety of humanity also:
The Psychological Contract represents, in a basic sense, the obligations, rights, rewards, etc. This notion applies to a group of employees or a workforce, just as it may be seen applying to a single employee.
Leaders and leadership in this context refer to senior executive leaders or a chief executive, etc. Where the term Psychological Contract is shown in books, articles, training materials, etc.
Accordingly on this webpage, where the term applies to the employment situation, it is shown as the Psychological Contract, or the Contract.
The concept of the Psychological Contract within business, work and employment is extremely flexible and very difficult if not practically impossible to measure in usual ways, as we might for example benchmark salaries and pay against market rates, or responsibilities with qualifications, etc.
While each individual almost certainly holds his or her own view of what the Psychological Contract means at a personal level, in organizational terms the collective view and actions of a whole workgroup or workforce are usually far more significant, and in practice the main focus of leadership is towards a collective or group situation.
This is particularly necessary in large organizations where scale effectively prevents consideration of the full complexities and implications of the Psychological Contract on a person-by-person basis.
It would be helpful to us all for this expression and its related theory, as an extension of the Transactional Analysis usage, to become more generally used in human communications and understanding.
In life, relationships and communications generally operate on a very superficial level. Opportunities to explore, understand, explain and agree mutual expectations are largely ignored or neglected - mostly through fear or ignorance. It is a wonder that humans manage to cooperate at all given how differently two people, or two parties, can interpret a meaning, and yet be seemingly incapable of seeking or offering better transparency or clarity.
The Psychological Contract is becoming a powerful concept in the work context. Potentially it is even more more powerful when we consider and apply its principles more widely. Because psychological contracts represent how people interpret promises and commitments, both parties in the same employment relationship can have different views The definition of the Psychological Contract on Wikipedia April is: It sets the dynamics for the relationship and defines the detailed practicality of the work to be done.
It is distinguishable from the formal written contract of employment which, for the most part, only identifies mutual duties and responsibilities in a generalized form. These obligations will often be informal and imprecise: The important thing is that they are believed by the employee to be part of the relationship with the employer You will see his ideas and models commonly referenced if you research the subject in depth.
Within these referenced definitions you will see already that the concept is open to different interpretations, and has a number of complex dimensions, notably: Work used to be a relatively simple matter of hours or piece-rate in return for wages.
It is a lot more complicated now, and so inevitably are the nature and implications of the Psychological Contract. At this point a couple of diagrams might be helpful. Diagrams can be helpful in understanding and explaining intangible concepts.
Here are a couple of diagram interpretations, offered here as useful models in understanding Psychological Contracts. Venn diagrams devised c.
The Venn diagram below provides a simple interpretation of the factors and influences operating in Psychological Contracts.managing an organizational learning system by aligning stocks and flows of knowledge: an empirical examination of intellectual capital, knowledge management, and business performance.
Impact of performance management on the organisational performance: training as to provide required knowledge and abilities to the employees of the organization for of the organization.
Performance appraisal is the continuous process of monitoring that the. Abstract. Building on prior research in organizational knowledge, learning, and memory, this paper suggests that export market knowledge may provide a deeper understanding of the relationships between export market information use and export performance.
Organizational behavior has focused on various different topics of study. In part because of the Second World War, during the s, the field focused on logistics and management science.
Industrial and organizational (I/O) psychologists study and assess individual, group and organizational dynamics in the workplace. They apply that research to identify solutions to problems that improve the well-being and performance of organizations and their employees.
between their organizational internal resources, competitive advantage and performance. Such a research can contribute to the body of knowledge by lending empirical support and further extending the RBV of competitive.