The plaintiffs were thirteen Topeka parents on behalf of their 20 children. The Topeka Board of Education operated separate elementary schools under an Kansas law, which permitted but did not require districts to maintain separate elementary school facilities for black and white students in 12 communities with populations over 15,
History - Brown v. Board of Education Re-enactment The Plessy Decision Although the Declaration of Independence stated that "All men are created equal," due to the institution of slavery, this statement was not to be grounded in law in the United States until after the Civil War and, arguably, not completely fulfilled for many years thereafter.
Inthe Thirteenth Amendment was ratified and finally put an end to slavery.
Moreover, the Fourteenth Amendment strengthened the legal rights of newly freed slaves by stating, among other things, that no state shall deprive anyone of either "due process of law" or of the "equal protection of the law. Despite these Amendments, African Americans were often treated differently than whites in many parts of the country, especially in the South.
In fact, many state legislatures enacted laws that led to the legally mandated segregation of the races. In other words, the laws of many states decreed that blacks and whites could not use the same public facilities, ride the same buses, attend the same schools, etc.
These laws came to be known as Jim Crow laws. Inan African-American man named Homer Plessy refused to give up his seat to a white man on a train in New Orleans, as he was required to do by Louisiana state law.
For this action he was arrested.
Plessy, contending that the Louisiana law separating blacks from whites on trains violated the "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U. Constitution, decided to fight his arrest in court. Byhis case had made it all the way to the United States Supreme Court.
By a vote ofthe Supreme Court ruled against Plessy. In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, Justice Henry Billings Brown, writing the majority opinion, stated that: If one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them upon the same plane.
Sadly, as a result of the Plessy decision, in the early twentieth century the Supreme Court continued to uphold the legality of Jim Crow laws and other forms of racial discrimination. In the case of Cumming v.
County Board of Educationfor instance, the Court refused to issue an injunction preventing a school board from spending tax money on a white high school when the same school board voted to close down a black high school for financial reasons. Moreover, in Gong Lum v.
The Road to Brown Note: Some of the case information is from Patterson, James T. Oxford University Press; New York, For about the first 20 years of its existence, it tried to persuade Congress and other legislative bodies to enact laws that would protect African Americans from lynchings and other racist actions.
Houston, together with Thurgood Marshall, devised a strategy to attack Jim Crow laws by striking at them where they were perhaps weakest—in the field of education. Maryland and Missouri ex rel Gaines v.Brown v.
Board of Education of Topeka, case in which on May 17, , the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously (9–0) that racial segregation in public schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which prohibits the states from denying equal protection of the laws to any person within their jurisdictions.
The decision declared that separate educational facilities for white. Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka For much of the ninety years preceding the Brown case, race relations in the U.S.
had been dominated by racial segregation. This policy had been endorsed in by the United States Supreme Court case of Plessy v. Board of Education (, ) The case that came to be known as Brown v.
Board of Education was actually the name given to five separate cases that were heard by the U.S. Supreme Court concerning the issue of segregation in public schools.
Linda Brown and her family believed that the segregated school system violated the Fourteenth Amendment and took their case to court. Federal district court decided that segregation in public education was harmful to black children, but because all-black schools and all-white schools had similar buildings, transportation, curricula, and.
Board of Education, School Segregation Still Exists. The U.S. Supreme Court struck down school segregation in Brown v. Board of Education 62 years ago today.
the GAO performed three case. May 02, · Watch video · Board of Education of Topeka was a landmark Supreme Court case in which the justices ruled unanimously that racial segregation of children in public schools was unconstitutional.