The moon illusion a literature thesis by bart borghuis

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A literature thesis by Bart Borghuis. Introduction The moon seen close to the horizon appears to be quite a bit larger than when it is viewed at its zenith.

The moon illusion a literature thesis by bart borghuis

The same effect can be observed when viewing the sun or constellations of stars. This odd phenomenon is called the 'Moon Illusion' and has been studied for centuries; it was first mentioned in cuneiform inscriptions on clay tablets from the royal library at Nineveh in the 7th century BC and later recognized by Ptolemy, ca AD.

The first important step towards an explanation of this ancient phenomenon is establishing that what we are dealing with here is a perceptual illusion. The moon's orbit around Earth.

Through the ages, many writers have speculated that the illusion has a physical basis. It is important to note that according to these explanations the image of the moon would truly be larger in the case of a just risen, or setting moon compared with the image of the moon viewed at its zenith.

This is not the case, which can be illustrated in a number of ways. Early observers found that the image of the moon formed on the screen in a camera obscura has the same diameter, irrespective of the elevation of the moon above the horizon.

Similarly, measurements of projections using a lens with a long focal length or photographs of the moon at different locations in the sky reveal no illusion.

The moon illusion a literature thesis by bart borghuis

Another account Enright attributes the moon illusion to oculomotor adjustments that induce a phenomenon called micropsia. Maintain fixation and focus on your thumbnail while moving your thumb closer to you.

Notice how the far object appears to shrink in size so long as focus is maintained on the near thumbnail. Therefore, it has to be concluded that the visual angle that the moon forms at the eye remains essentially the same, regardless of its location, but our perception of its size varies.

Several attempts have been made to quantify the percieved size increase. Minnaert asked observers to match the percieved size of the moon to one of a series of white discs varying in size on a black background, located at a fixed distance. Of course this can not be done by direct comparison or one would find, just as in the case of an actual measurement, that the size is invariably the same.

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The numbers obtained this way showed that the moon looks as much as 2. Using a similar method Wolfgang Metzger reported an average increase of factor 2. Holway and Boring estimated that the horizon moon is percieved as about 1.

It is obvious that the results obtained by these methods are subject to a fair amount of variability and it was not until the experiments carried out by Rock and Kaufman that the effect was quantified through direct observation. Apparatus used to similate a moon in the sky.

The observer looks through the half silvered glass and sees a reflected disk of light against the sky. Taken from Rock Kaufman and Rock constructed a piece of apparatus fig.

A rotating drum with graduated holes allowed the observer to change the diameter of the artificial moon while viewing the real horizon or zenith moon. The magnitude of the effect, expressed as the ratio of the percieved size of the horizon moon to the elevated moon, was approximately 1.

This ratio appeared to be influenced strongly by the circumstances, e. Enrightusing the same method, found the ratios varying from 1. Having established that the moon illusion is a quantifiable perceptual illusion, two important questions arise.[1] For the history, see The Moon Illusion, A literature thesis by Bart Borghuis.

A very extensive review of the published research, and the theories of the moon illusion. [2] An overlong and tedious review of various theories of the moon illusion can be found at Donald Simanek's web site: The Moon Illusion, An Unsolved Mystery. [3] Kaufman, Lloyd. How to cite unpublished thesis harvard style.

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What not to exceed an average of 22 students per year, each of the contact zone pedagogy or praxis. The Moon Experience: Designing Participatory Immersive Environments for Experiential Learning THESIS Several Approaches to Solve The Rotation Illusion with Wheel Effect, Cheng Zhang and Rick Parent, SPIE Conference Proceedings on Computational Imaging VIII, .

Literature and cinema, Virginia Woolf, Feminism, Literature and Visual Arts The Window in Virginia Woolf's Early Novels This thesis focuses on the window and the visual in Virginia Woolf's first three novels The Voyage Out (), Night and Day () and Jacob's Room ().

Having established that the moon illusion is a quantifiable perceptual illusion, two important questions arise. Firstly, what mechanism in the visual system gives rise to the Moon Illusion and secondly, under which circumstances can the strongest effect be obtained.

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